Invasive Specieswoody nightshade

Solanum dulcamara
FOUND by llama
2018-09-12
Bangor
ID Confirmed
Quality checked by pale throated three toed sloth
Peer reviewed by Ringneck Snake
Field Notes
Outside the weather was hot and humid. The sun was out and there was a little bit of wind. Some of the woody nightshade had shade but most of it was in the sun. There was a lot of grass around and under the plant as well. There were many other plants around the area that the woody nightshade was living in. The woody night shade grows over other plants and under big trees. The green leaves had some small white furs on the outside. Part of the stem had big white spikes on it. They were big enough to see and would definitely hurt. We also noticed that the stem got darker near the end. The berries were a bright red color and were round. The ripe berries were very squishy but the non-ripe felt more hard. They would take more pressure to squish. The berries have poisonous seeds on the inside. Birds will eat them, poop them out, and more woody nightshade with reproduce right where the seeds were dropped. Neither the plant or air had much of a smell. They just smelt like fresh air and plants. There weren't many bugs either but we saw some flies, bees, and hornets. We heard cars because we were right by the road, and other groups voices. In general, we really enjoyed going outside, looking at and learning about the invasive species, and feeling the fresh air. The only downside was that it was hot out and not much shade. To conclude, I think our investigation was a success.
A sketch of our study site.
Supporting Evidence
Photo of my evidence.
Leaves: The leaves on the woody nightshade have two different types of leaves. One of the leaves are small and sectioned in 7. The other leave has one big leaf and two small leaves that are connected to each other. Both have tiny furs that are green. Some of the leaves can be greenish - purple. The normal shapes of the woody nightshade leaves have an alternate arrangement. For example, the type of leaf is a simple style, the shape of the leaf is arrow, and finally the leaf edge is wavy. These different shapes of leaves and plants prove that this is most likely the woody nightshade plant.
Photo of my evidence.
Berries: The berries on Woody nightshade are a bright red color when they are ripened. When they aren’t fully ripened they are a bright green. The red berries are easy to squish but the green ones are very hard and only squish with lots of pressure. The berries start out as clusters of 3 - 20 purple, star shaped flowers with a yellow cone in the middle. The berries will start to grow off the purple flower and the egg shaped berry will be hugged by the flower. The stem then grows off the flower over time. The berries on the woody nightshade will help us prove we are hypothesis is correct.
Photo of my evidence.
Stems: The stem on the woody nightshade is slender and flexible. They are a brown color that gets darker towards the berry. Crush stems have an unpleasant smell of bitterness and unripened tomatoes. The stems are lower to the ground and have growth bumps and a few cream colored spikes. The spikes are pointy and will hurt if you touch them. The stem separates into different sections, making a spot for each berry.
Species Observation: Species Looked For
Did you find it?: 
I think I found it
Scientific name:
Solanum dulcamara
Common name:
woody nightshade
Count of individuals: 
Coverage: 
Between 1/2 and 3/4
Reproduction: 
Flower (plants)
Fruit (plants)
Vegetative structures (plants)
Sampling method: 
Quadrat (user-placement)
Photo of our sampling method.
Place Studied
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Map this species
Latitude: 
N 44.810794 °
Longitude: 
W -68.755604 °
Observation Site Information
A photo of our study site.
Habitat: 
Upland - Developed areas
Trip Information
Name:
Cohen School grounds
Trip date: 
Wed, 2018-09-12 09:48
Town or city: 
Bangor
Type of investigation: 
Species and Habitat Survey
Ecosystem: 
Upland
Watershed: 
Penobscot
Habitat Observations
Species diversity: 
1 different species
Evidence of vectors: 
Paved road
Tree canopy cover: 
Between 1/4 and 1/2
Soil moisture: 
Dry

Comments

Hi! thanks for the feedback. We were wondering how far does the woody nightshade spread and where is it native to?
Thank you
Llama

Hi Llama,

Great questions-- I don't have all of the answers. The invasive plant atlas is an excellent resource: https://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/subject.html?sub=6448.

Take a look and let me know what you find out!

Thanks,
Curious

Good work, llama, you did find solanum dulcamara! I am impressed with the amount of detail in your observation, particularly the hairs on the leaves and the shape of the berries. This is all important information that helps me confirm your observation. I'm glad that you enjoyed going outside and that you recorded your observations so carefully. Keep an eye on the solanum dulcamara. It will be interesting to see if the birds will spread it around your area, like you predicted they would in your field notes.

Great work and keep observing!

-Curious